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The Pathway Tools API

The Pathway Tools API

Tomer Altman

October 21, 2009

Contents

    1  Introduction
        1.1  Conventions and Notation

    2  Software Architecture of Pathway Tools
        2.1  Common Lisp
        2.2  Franz’s Allegro Common Lisp
        2.3  Ocelot Frame Representation System
        2.4  Generic Frame Protocol
            2.4.1  Terminology
        2.5  Pathway Tools Application Code
            2.5.1  Pathway Tools API Functions

    3  The Pathway Tools Schema

    4  Getting Started
        4.1  Caveats

    5  API Functions
        5.1  Enumeration Operations
            5.1.1  Operations on Reactions
            5.1.2  Operations on Pathways
            5.1.3  Operations on Enzymatic-Reactions
            5.1.4  Operations on Proteins
            5.1.5  Operations on Genes
            5.1.6  Operations on Regulation Frames
            5.1.7  Operations on Compounds
            5.1.8  Object Name Manipulation Operations

    6  Code Examples
        6.1  Example Table-Generating Functions
        6.2  Example Queries

1  Introduction

The Pathway Tools software suite is more than just a way to view a multidimensional genome annotation, or a way to build Pathway/Genome Databaes (PGDBs). It is also a robust platform for bioinformatics programming. The aim of this document is to explain the Lisp API for Pathway Tools to end-users. Pathway Tools has hundreds of thousands of lines of code, developed over 15 years. There are dozens of high-level computations, and many utility functions, that are ready for use and save countless hours of programming time if used correctly. Those who learn how to programmatically access the Lisp API can unlock the full potential and benefit from using Pathway Tools.

1.1  Conventions and Notation

If we are referring to a Common Lisp symbol, code, or object, we will often give it a special highlighting. For example, to represent the frame name of the class that represents reactions, we use the notation |Reactions|. This is how one would specify the frame name of the class when writing Common Lisp code for use with the Pathway Tools API.

Common Lisp code is also given a special highlighting. A short example would be (all‑rxns :all). Please see the section on example code to see larger examples of how this would appear.

In the description of arguments to functions, an Optional argument without a described default value should be assumed to be 'nil by default. Also, if a function is described as having an Optional argument, that means that the logic of the function does not require that the argument be set. It does not necessarily mean a reference to a Common Lisp &optional argument. On the other hand, if a function’s argument is described as being a Keyword argument, it is explicitly in reference to it being a Common Lisp &keyword argument. Such arguments must be supplied after the Keyword argument name, where the argument name has been prefixed with a colon, ‘:’, such as the keyword allow‑modified‑forms? in the function all‑transcription‑factors, which would take the form of the following example function call: (all‑transcription‑factors :allow‑modified‑forms? nil).

Common Lisp also has a notation for describing symbol names that contain alphabetic characters that are not upper-case. For example, a class might have the name of “Protein-Complexes”. The frame ID for that class would be described as |Protein‑Complexes|. The vertical bars on either side of the frame ID tells Common Lisp that the symbol name has lower-case letters, and they shouldn’t be converted to their upper-case equivalents. This implies that Common Lisp is not case-sensitive when it comes to frame IDs. For example, Protein‑Complexes would not be considered the same as |Protein‑Complexes|, since the former notation would be indistinguishable from PROTEIN‑COMPLEXES from the perspective of Common Lisp.

2  Software Architecture of Pathway Tools

Pathway Tools has a layered design. Depending on the data manipulation task at hand, you might want or need to use functions that reside at various levels throughout the architecture. The following sections describe the individual layers.

2.1  Common Lisp

At the most fundamental level, Pathway Tools is built using a programming language called Common Lisp (CL). CL is a very high-level robust industrial-strength programming language, with a powerful object system and integrated compiler. It easily holds its own against other computer languages, such as C++ and Java, and in fact is often a superior choice. In order to understand the Lisp API of Pathway Tools, you will first need to understand a bit about Common Lisp. The definitive source of information on Common Lisp is the ANSI standard. It is conveniently available online in an extensively hyperlinked document known as the Common Lisp HyperSpec. A more readable and thorough explanation of Common Lisp can be found in Guy Steele’s "Common Lisp the Language", which is now available online. Two recently published books on Common Lisp programming include Paul Graham’s ANSI Common Lisp, and Peter Seibel’s “Practical Common Lisp”. We recommend Pathway Tools users that are new to read the latter book, since it is full of easy to follow exercises, and is available in its entirety online, for free.

Almost all functions defined in the ANSI Common Lisp standard are accessible from the Pathway Tools Lisp API.

2.2  Franz’s Allegro Common Lisp

The particular Common Lisp implementation that is used in building Pathway Tools is that from Franz. Almost all functions that are available from Allegro Common Lisp (see the Allegro Common Lisp documentation for a list of functions) are also exposed in the Pathway Tools Lisp API. Certain libraries available in the professional version of Allegro Common Lisp are not built in to the Pathway Tools runtime images, due to licensing restrictions.

2.3  Ocelot Frame Representation System

Ocelot is a frame representation system implemented on top of Common Lisp. It can be thought of as an object-oriented database. The term for a collection of classes and instances defined in a frame representation system is a “knowledgebase”. The Ocelot Manual defines a set of functions that are exposed in the Pathway Tools Lisp API. Please see the following for more discussion on frame representation systems The Design Space of Frame Knowledge Representation Systems.

2.4  Generic Frame Protocol

The Generic Frame Protocol (GFP) is a standard API for interacting with frame representation systems. It performs an analogous role as the SQL language performs for different relational databases. The Pathway Tools Lisp API uses GFP operations to interact with the Ocelot frame representation system (though there are a few functions defined in the Ocelot Manual that do not have analogs in GFP). We recommend that those who want to learn how to interact with Pathway Tools read “Introduction”, “A Reference Model of Frame Representation Primitives” (ignore “FRS Behaviors”), “The Generic Frame Protocol” (through “Facet Functions”) of the GFP Specification.

A useful tool for browsing knowledgebases that support GFP would be the Generic Knowledge-Base (GKB) Editor, which is built-in to Pathway Tools.

2.4.1  Terminology

There are certain terms that are used when describing objects, meta-objects, and relationships in a frame system. Much of the terminology is similar to the concepts from object oriented design. Here we provide definitions for the most common occurrences.

knowledgebase
A collection of class and instance objects that describe a domain.
class
An abstract form of an object. These are arranged in a hierarchy or directed acyclic graph (i.e., multiple inheritance).
subclass
A class that is subsumed by one or more other classes.
superclass
A class that subsumes one or more other classes.
instance
A concrete frame, representing a specific object.
parent
The direct or indirect classes that the given frame inherits from. This can follow a transitive closure all the way to the root classes.
child
The direct or indirect classes that the given class subsumes. This can follow a transitive closure all the way to the instances.
slot
An attribute or member of the frame. These are defined in their own frames, known as slot‑units.
facet
A speficic attribute of the slot.
annotation
Data that is associated with a particular value in a particular slot.
slot-unit
A frame that defines the properties of a slot, as the slot appears in other frames.

2.5  Pathway Tools Application Code

2.5.1  Pathway Tools API Functions

In the application code level, there are certain functions that have been identified as being useful for end-users as well. These functions are exposed in the Pathway Tools Lisp API, and they are described in this document in Section 5.

3  The Pathway Tools Schema

The Pathway Tools schema is the particular collection of classes, and the defined relationships between them, that are present in the knowledgebase of any PGDB. Ocelot supports multiple inheritance of classes, so a class or instance might have more than one direct superclass. An easy way to visualize the Pathway Tools schema is by means of the GKB Editor.

The Pathway Tools schema can be extended by means of GFP operations, but one must be aware that such changes might be destroyed when a PGDB schema upgrade occurs. It is highly recommended to perform any desired addition of classes via the Pathway Tools Navigator if possible, or through the GKB Editor.

Another important concept is that of a slot‑unit. For any given slot in the schema, there is a special frame known as a slot‑unit, with the name of the slot as the frame ID. The slot‑unit frame defines the properties of the slot, known as facets. Please see the Ocelot and GFP documentation for more information.

Figure 1:  Major relationships among the major classes of the Pathway Tools schema. Colors indicate biological areas: blue for reaction and pathway information, green for genome and protein information; orange for regulation.

4  Getting Started

4.1  Caveats

One aspect of GFP is that it defines a notion of the “current knowledgebase”. This is similar to how many relational database management systems work, in that any query must be against a specified database/schema, and queries default to the “current” database/schema. In the context of Pathway Tools, every PGDB is a organism-specific knowledgebase. For many functions, it assumes that the operations are to be performed on the “current organism” (i.e., the selected PGDB). Some functions allow you to provide an optional argument, where you can specify which organism you wish to have the function run against.

5  API Functions

This section lists a series of functions that are used for convenient navigation from one object type to another, such as from biochemical pathways to their constituent reactions, or from DNA binding sites to regulation description objects.

Unless otherwise specified, it should be assumed that all of these functions apply only to the currently selected PGDB.

5.1  Enumeration Operations

all-pathways
Description
Returns a list of pathway instance frames of a specified type.
Arguments
selector
Optional Selects whether all pathways, or just small-molecule metabolism base pathways. Can take either a symbol of :all or :small‑molecule. Defaults to <code>:all</code>.
base?
Optional If this argument evaluates to true, only includes base pathways. Otherwise, all pathways, including superpathways, will be returned.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Pathways|.

all-rxns
Description
Returns a set of reactions that fall within a particular category.
Arguments
type
Optional The type of reaction to return. Defaults to :metab‑smm. The possible values are:
:all
All reactions.
:metab-pathways
All reactions found within metabolic pathways. Includes reactions that are pathway holes. May include a handfull of reactions whose substrates are macromolecules, e.g., ACP. Excludes transport reactions.
:metab-smm
All reactions of small molecule metabolism, whether or not they are present in a pathway. Subsumes :metab‑pathways.
:metab-all
All enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Subsumes :metab‑smm.
:enzyme
All enzyme-catalyzed reactions (i.e., instances of either EC-Reactions class or Unclassified-Reactions class).
:transport
All transport reactions.
:small-molecule
All reactions whose substrates are all small molecules, as opposed to macromolecules. Excludes transport reactions.
:protein-small-molecule-reaction
One of the substrates of the reaction is a macromolecule, and one of the substrates of the reaction is a small molecule.
:protein-reaction
All substrates of the reaction are proteins.
:trna-reaction
One of the substrates of the reaction is a tRNA.
:spontaneous
Spontaneous reactions.
:non-spontaneous
Non-spontaneous reactions that are likely to be enzyme catalyzed. Some reactions will be returned for type :non‑spontaneous that will not be returned by :enzyme.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of reaction frames.

all-substrates
Description
Returns all unique substrates used in the reactions specified by the argument rxns.
Arguments
rxns
A list of reaction frames.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of compound frames. There might be strings in the list, as the 'left and 'right slots of a reaction frame can contain strings.

all-cofactors
Description
Return a list of all cofactors used in the current PGDB.
Arguments
None.
Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of cofactor frames.

all-modulators
Description
Enumerate all of the modulators, or direct regulators, in the current PGDB.
Arguments
None.
Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of regulator frames.

all-transported-chemicals
Description
Enumerates all chemicals transported by transport reactions in the current PGDB.
Arguments
from-compartment
Keyword, Optional The compartment that the chemical is coming from (see Cellular Component Ontology).
to-compartment
Keyword, Optional The compartment that the chemical is going to (see Cellular Component Ontology).
show-compartment
Keyword, Optional Show the form of the compound as it is present in the specified compartment (see Cellular Component Ontology), if the compound is modified during transport.
primary-only?
Keyword, Optional If true, filter out common transport compounds, such as protons and Na+.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of compound frames.

all-protein-complexes
Description
Enumerates different types of protein complexes.
Arguments
filter
Keyword The type of protein complexes to return. The argument must be one of the following values:
:all or t
Return all protein complexes.
:hetero
Return all heteromultimers.
:homo
Return all homomultimers.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of protein complex frames.

all-transcription-factors
Description
Enumerates all transcription factors, or just unmodified forms of transcription factors.
Arguments

Side-Effects
allow-modified-forms?
Keyword, Optional A boolean value. If true, modified and unmodified forms of the protein are returned. If false, then only unmodified forms of the proteins are returned. The default value is t.

Return Value(s)
None.

A list of protein frames that are transcription factors.

all-genetic-regulation-proteins
Description
Enumerates all proteins that are involved in genetic regulation of a particular given class. Optionally, just unmodified forms of the proteins are returned.
Arguments
class
Keyword, Optional The class |Regulation| or a subclass. It defaults to |Regulation‑of‑Transcription‑Initiation|.
allow-modified forms?
Keyword, Optional A boolean value. If true, modified and unmodified forms of the protein are returned. If false, then only unmodified forms of the proteins are returned. The default value is t.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of protein frames that are involved in the specified form of regulation.

all-sigma-factors
Description
Enumerate all RNA polymerase sigma factors.
Arguments
None.
Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of all instances of the class |Sigma‑Factors|.

all-operons
Description
Enumerates all operons. In this case, an operon is defined as a list of overlapping instances of |Transcription‑Units|.
Arguments
None.
Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of lists of |Transcription‑Units|, where all |Transcription‑Units| in the list belong to the same operon.

rxns-w-isozymes
Description
Enumerate all reactions that have isozymes (distinct proteins or protein classes that catalyze the same reaction).
Arguments
rxns
Keyword, Optional A list of instances of the class |Reactions|. Defaults to the result of (all‑rxns :enzyme).

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of A list of instances of the class |Reactions| with isozymes.

rxns-catalyzed-by-complex
Description
Enumerates all reactions catalyzed by an enzyme that is a protein complex.
Arguments
rxns
Keyword, Optional A list of instances of the class |Reactions|. Defaults to the result of (all‑rxns :enzyme).

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Reactions| with a protein complex as an enzyme.

all-enzymes
Description
Return all enzymes of a given type.
Arguments
type
Keyword, Optional A type as taken from the argument to #'enzyme?. Defaults to :chemical‑change.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Proteins|.

all-transporters
Description
Enumerate all transport proteins.
Arguments
None.
Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Proteins|.

5.1.1  Operations on Reactions

genes-of-reaction
Description
Return all genes that encode the enzymes of a given reaction.
Arguments
rxn
An instance of the class |Reactions|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Genes|.

substrates-of-reaction
Description
Return all of the reactants and products of a given reaction.
Arguments
rxn
An instance of the class |Reactions|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list that may consist of children of class |Compounds|, children of class |Polymer‑Segments|, or strings.

enzymes-of-reaction
Description
Return the enzymes that catalyze a given reaction.
Arguments
rxn
An instance of the class |Reactions|.
species
Keyword, Optional A list of species, such that in a multi-organism PGDB such as MetaCyc, only proteins found in those organisms will be returned. This list can include valid org‑ids, children of class |Organisms|, and strings. Please see the documentation for the 'species slot‑unit for more information. Default value is nil.
experimental-only?
Keyword, Optional When true, only return enzymes that have a non-computational evidence code associated with it.
local-only-p
Keyword, Optional When true, only return enzymes that catalyze the specific form of the reaction, as opposed to enzymes that are known to catalyze a more general form (i.e., class) of the reaction.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of children of class |Proteins| or class |Protein‑RNA‑Complexes|.

reaction-reactants-and-products
Description
Return the reactants and products of a reaction, based on a specified direction. The direction can be specified explicity or by giving a pathway as an argument. It is an error to both specify the pathway and the explicit direction. If neither an explicit direction or a pathway is given as an argument, then the direction is computationally inferred from available evidence within the PGDB.
Arguments
rxn
An instance of the class |Reactions|.
direction
Keyword, Optional Can take on the following values:
:L2R
The reaction direction goes from ‘left to right’, as described in the |Reactions| instance.
:R2L
The reaction direction goes from ‘right to left’; the opposite of what is described in the |Reactions| instance.

pwy
Keyword, Optional An instance of the class |Pathways|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
Returns multiple values. The first value is a list of reactants as determined by the direction of the reaction, and the second value is a list of the products as determined by the direction of the reaction. Both lists have items that are children of class |Compounds|, children of class |Polymer‑Segments|, or strings.

reaction-type
Description
Returns a keyword describing the type of reaction.
Arguments
rxn
An instance of the class |Reactions|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A Common Lisp symbol from the following set:
:small-molecule
All substrates are small molecules, or small-molecule classes.
:transport
A substrate is marked with different compartment annotations in the 'left and 'right slots.
:protein-small-molecule-reaction
At least one substrate is a protein and at least one is a small molecule.
:protein-reaction
All substrates are proteins.
:trna-reaction
At least one substrate is a tRNA.
:null-reaction
No substrates or reactants are specified.
:other
None of the preceding cases apply.

rxn-without-sequenced-enzyme-p
Description
A predicate that tests if a given reaction has genes with no associated sequence information.
Arguments
rxn
An instance of the class |Reactions|.
complete?
Optional If true, the predicate will return true when there is any associated gene without a sequence. If nil, the predicate will return true when all associated genes are without a sequence.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

pathway-hole-p
Description
A predicate that determines if the current reaction is considered to be a ‘pathway hole’, or without an associated enzyme.
Arguments
rxn
An instance of the class |Reactions|.
hole-if-any-gene-without-position?
Keyword, Optional If true, then genes without specified coordinates for the current organism’s genome are not counted when determining the status of the reaction.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

rxn-present?
Description
A predicate that determines if there is evidence for the occurrence of the given reaction in the current PGDB.
Arguments
rxn
An instance of the class |Reactions|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

rxn-specific-form-of-rxn-p
Description
A predicate that is true if the given generic reaction is a generalized form of the given specific reaction.
Arguments
specific-rxn
A child of the class |Reactions|.
generic-rxn
A child of the class |Reactions|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

nonspecific-forms-of-rxn
Description
Return all of the generic forms of the given specific reaction. Not every reaction will necessarily have a generic form.
Arguments
rxn
An instance of the class |Reactions|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of children of the class |Reactions|.

specific-forms-of-rxn
Description
Return all of the specific forms of the given generic reaction. Not every reaction will necessarily have a specific form.
Arguments
rxn
A child of the class |Reactions|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Reactions|.

rxn-in-compartment-p
Description
A predicate that checks if the given reaction is present in a list of cellular compartments.
Arguments
rxn
An instance of the class |Reactions|.
compartments
A list of cellular compartments, as defined in the Cellular Components Ontology. See frame 'CCO.
default-ok?
Keyword, Optional If true, then we return true if the reaction has no associated compartment information, or one of its associated locations is a super-class of one of the members of the compartments argument.
pwy
Keyword, Optional If supplied, the search for associated enzymes of the argument rxn is limited to the given child of |Pathways|.
loose?
Keyword, Optional If true, then the compartments 'CCO‑CYTOPLASM and 'CCO‑CYTOSOL are treated as being the same compartment.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

compartment-of-rxn
Description
Returns the compartment of the reaction for non-transport reactions.
Arguments
rxn
An instance of the class |Reactions|.
default
Optional The default compartment for reactions without any compartment annotations on their substrates. The default value is 'CCO‑CYTOSOL.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A child of the class 'CCO.

compartments-of-reaction
Description
Returns the compartments associated with the given reaction.
Arguments
rxn
An instance of the class |Reactions|.
sides
Keyword, Optional The slots of the reaction to consider. The default value is '(LEFT RIGHT).
default-compartment
The default compartment, as determined by the function (default‑compartment), which currently is set to 'CCO‑CYTOSOL.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of children of the class 'CCO.

transported-chemicals
Description
Return the compounds in a transport reaction that change compartments.
Arguments
rxn
An instance of the class |Reactions|.
side
Keyword, Optional The side of the reaction from which to return the transported compound.
primary-only?
Keyword, Optional If true, then filter out common exchangers (currently defined as '(PROTON NA CPD-1)+). If true, and the only transported compounds are in this list, then the filter doesn’t apply.
from-compartment
Keyword, Optional A compartment (child of class 'CCO). If specified, then only return compounds transported from that compartment.
to-compartment
Keyword, Optional A compartment (child of class 'CCO). If specified, then only return compounds transported to that compartment.
show-compartment
Keyword, Optional A compartment (child of class 'CCO). If specified, and the compound is modified during transport, then only return the form of the compound as found in this compartment.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of children of class |Compounds|.

get-predecessors
Description
Return a list of all reactions that are direct predecessors (i.e., occurr earlier in the pathway) of the given reaction in the given pathway.
Arguments
rxn
An instance of the class |Reactions|.
pwy
A child of the class |Pathways|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Reactions|.

get-successors
Description
Return a list of all reactions that are direct successors (i.e., occurr later in the pathway) of the given reaction in the given pathway.
Arguments
rxn
An instance of the class |Reactions|.
pwy
A child of the class |Pathways|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Reactions|.

rxn-w-isozymes-p
Description
A predicate that tests if a given reaction has any associated isozymes (distinct proteins or protein classes that catalyze the same reaction).
Arguments
rxn
An instance of the class |Reactions|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

5.1.2  Operations on Pathways

genes-of-pathway
Description
Return all genes coding for enzymes in the given pathway.
Arguments
pwy
An instance of the class |Pathways|.
sorted?
Keyword, Optional If true, the genes are sorted in the order in which the corresponding reaction occurrs in the sequence of the pathway.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Genes|.

enzymes-of-pathway
Description
Return all enzymes that are present in the given pathway.
Arguments
pwy
An instance of the class |Pathways|.
species
Keyword, Optional A list of species, such that in a multi-organism PGDB such as MetaCyc, only proteins found in those organisms will be returned. This list can include valid org‑ids, children of class |Organisms|, and strings. Please see the documentation for the 'species slot‑unit for more information.
experimental-only?
Keyword, Optional When true, only return enzymes that have a non-computational evidence code associated with it.
sorted?
Keyword, Optional If true, the enzymes are sorted in the order in which the corresponding reaction occurrs in the sequence of the pathway.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of children of class |Proteins| or class |Protein‑RNA‑Complexes|.

1compounds-of-pathway
Description
Return all substrates of all reactions that are within the given pathway.
Arguments
pwy
An instance of the class |Pathways|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of children of class |Compounds|, children of class |Polymer‑Segments|, or strings.

substrates-of-pathway
Description
Bearing in mind the direction of all reactions within a pathway, this function returns the substrates of the reactions in four groups: a list of all reactant compounds (compounds occurring on the left side of some reaction in the given pathway), the list of proper reactants (the subset of reactants that are not also products), a list of all products, and a list of all proper products.
Arguments
pwy
An instance of the class |Pathways|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
Four values, each of which is a list of substrates. A substrate may be a child of class |Compounds|, a child of class |Polymer‑Segments|, or a string.

variants-of-pathway
Description
Returns all variants of a pathway.
Arguments
pwy
An instance of the class |Pathways|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instance of the class |Pathways|.

pathway-components
Description
Returns all of the connected components of a pathway. A connected component of a pathway is a set of reactions in the pathway such that for all reactions R1 in the connected component, a predecessor relationship holds between R1 and some other reaction R2 in the connected component, and each connected component is of maximal size. Every pathway will have from 1 to N connected components, where N is the number of reactions in the pathway. Most pathways have one connected component, but not all.
Arguments
pwy
An instance of the class |Pathways|, which is not a super-pathway (i.e., does not have any entries in its 'sub‑pathways slot).
rxn-list
Optional The list of reactions to use as the starting list of connected component clusters. Defaults to (get‑slot‑values pwy 'reaction‑list).

pred-list
Optional The list of reaction predecessors to iterate from in order to cluster the reactions in rxn‑list. Defaults to (get‑slot‑values pwy 'predecessors).

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
Returns three values: the connected components as a list of lists of the form '((r1 r2 r3) (r4 r5) (r6 r7 r8)) where each sub-list contains all reactions in one connected component, the number of connected components, and the length of the reaction list.

noncontiguous-pathway-p
Description
A predicate that determines if the pathway contains more than one connected component. See function pathway-components for more explanation.
Arguments
pwy
An instance of the class |Pathways|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

rxns-adjacent-in-pwy-p
Description
A predicate to determine if two given reactions are adjacent to one another in the given pathway.
Arguments
rxn1
An instance of the class |Reactions|.
rxn2
An instance of the class |Reactions|.
pwy
An instance of the class |Pathways|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

5.1.3  Operations on Enzymatic-Reactions

cofactors-and-pgroups-of-enzrxn
Description
Returns the cofactors and prosthetic groups of an enzymatic reaction.
Arguments
enzrxn
An instance of the class |Enzymatic‑Reactions|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of children of class ’|Chemicals| or strings, representing cofactors and/or prosthetic groups.

enzrxn-activators
Description
Returns the list of activators (generally small molecules) of the enzymatic reaction frame.
Arguments
er
An instance of the class |Enzymatic‑Reactions|.
phys-relevant-only?
Optional If true, then only return activators that are associated with |Regulation| instances that have the 'physiologically‑relevant? slot set to non-nil.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of children of the class |Chemicals|.

enzrxn-inhibitors
Description
Returns the list of inhibitors (generally small molecules) of the enzymatic reaction frame.
Arguments
er
An instance of the class |Enzymatic‑Reactions|.
phys-relevant-only?
Optional If true, then only return inhibitors that are associated with |Regulation| instances that have the 'physiologically‑relevant? slot set to non-nil.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of children of the class |Chemicals|.

pathways-of-enzrxn
Description
Returns the list of pathways in which the given enzymatic reaction participates.
Arguments
enzrxn
An instance of the class |Enzymatic‑Reactions|.
include-super-pwys?
Keyword, Optional If non-nil, then not only will the direct pathways in which enzrxn is associated in be returned, but also any enclosing super-pathways. If enzrxn is associated with a reaction that is directly associated with a super-pathway, then the function might return super-pathways even if this option is nil.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Pathways|.

pathway-allows-enzrxn?
Description
A predicate which returns a true value if the given pathway allows the given enzymatic reaction to catalyze the given reaction. Certain pathways have a list of enzymatic reactions that are known not to catalyze certain reactions. See the documentation of slot-unit 'enzyme‑use for more information.
Arguments
pwy
An instance of the class |Pathways|.
rxn
An instance of the class |Reactions|.
enzrxn
An instance of the class |Enzymatic‑Reactions|.
single-species
Optional An instance of the class |Organisms| If set, then enzrxn has the further stricture that it must be an enzymatic reaction present in the organism specified by the value passed to single‑species.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

5.1.4  Operations on Proteins

monomers-of-protein
Description
Returns the monomers of the given protein complex.
Arguments
p
An instance of the class |Proteins|.
coefficients?
Keyword, Optional If true, then the second return value of the function will be a list of monomer coefficients. Defaults to true.
unmodify?
Keyword, Optional If true, obtain the monomers of the unmodified form of p.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
First value is a list of instances of the class ’|Proteins|. If coefficients? is true, then the second value is the corresponding coefficients of the monomers fromthe first return value.

base-components-of-protein
Description
Same as function #'monomers‑of‑protein, but also returns components of the protein that are RNAs or compounds, not just polypeptides.
Arguments
p
An instance of the class |Proteins|.
exclude-small-molecules?
Keyword, Optional If nil, then small molecule components are also returned. Default value is true.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
Two values. The first value is a list of the components, which can be instances of the following classes: |Polypeptides|, |RNA|, and |Compounds|. The second value is a list of the corresponding coefficients of the components in the first value.

containers-of
Description
Return all complexes of which the given protein is a direct or indirect component.
Arguments
protein
An instance of the class |Proteins|.
exclude-self?
Optional If true, then protein will not be included in the return value.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Proteins|.

protein-or-rna-containers-of
Description
This function is the same as the function #'containers‑of, except that it only includes containers that are instances of either class |Protein‑Complexes|, or class |Protein‑RNA‑Complexes|.
Arguments
protein
An instance of the class |Proteins|.
exclude-self?
Optional If true, then protein will not be included in the return value.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Proteins|.

homomultimeric-containers-of
Description
This function is the same as the function #'containers‑of, except that it only includes containers that are homomultimers.
Arguments
protein
An instance of the class |Proteins|.
exclude-self?
Optional If true, then protein will not be included in the return value.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Proteins|.

polypeptide-or-homomultimer-p
Description
A predicate that determines if the given protein is a polypeptide or a homomultimer.
Arguments
protein
An instance of the class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

unmodified-form
Description
Return the unmodified form of the given protein, which might be the same as the given protein.
Arguments
protein
An instance of the class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
An instance of the class |Proteins|.

unmodified-or-unbound-form
Description
Return the unmodified form or unbound (to a small molecule) form of the given protein, which might be the same as the given protein.
Arguments
protein
An instance of the class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
An instance of the class |Proteins|.

reduce-modified-proteins
Description
Given a list of proteins, the function converts all of the proteins to their unmodified form, and then removes any duplicates from the subsequent list.
Arguments
prots
A list of instances of the class |Proteins|.
debind?
Keyword, Optional When non-nil, the proteins are further simplified by obtaining the unbound form of the protein, if it is bound to a small molecule.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Proteins|.

all-direct-forms-of-protein
Description
Given a protein, this function will return all of the directly related proteins of its modified and unmodified forms, meaning all of their direct subunits and all of their direct containers.
Arguments
protein
An instance of the class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Proteins|.

all-forms-of-protein
Description
Given a protein, this function will return all of the related proteins of its modified and unmodified forms, meaning all of their subunits and all of their containers. Unlike #'all‑direct‑forms‑of‑protein, this function is not limited to the direct containers only.
Arguments
protein
An instance of the class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Proteins|.

modified-forms
Description
Returns all modified forms of a protein.
Arguments
protein
An instance of the class |Proteins|.
exclude-self?
Optional If true, then protein will not be included in the return value.
all-variants?
Optional If true, and protein is a modified form, then we return all of the modified forms of the unmodified forms of protein.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Proteins|.

modified-and-unmodified-forms
Description
Returns all of the modified and unmodified forms of the given protein.
Arguments
protein
An instance of the class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Proteins|.

modified-containers
Description
Returns all containers of a protein (including itself), and all modified forms of the containers.
Arguments
protein
An instance of the class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Proteins|.

top-containers
Description
Return the top-most containers (i.e., they are not a component of any other protein complex) of the given protein.
Arguments
protein
An instance of the class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Proteins|.

small-molecule-cplxes-of-prot
Description
Return all of the forms of the given protein that are complexes with small molecules.
Arguments
protein
An instance of the class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Proteins|.

genes-of-protein
Description
Given a protein, return the set of genes which encode all of the monomers of the protein.
Arguments
p
An instance of the class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Genes|.

genes-of-proteins
Description
The same as #'genes‑of‑protein, except that it takes a list of proteins and returns a set of genes.
Arguments
p
A list of instances of the class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Genes|.

reactions-of-enzyme
Description
Return all of the reactions associated with a given protein via enzymatic reactions.
Arguments
e
An instance of the class |Proteins|.
kb
Keyword, Optional The KB object of the KB in which to find the associated reactions. Defaults to the current PGDB.
include-specific-forms?
Keyword, Optional When true, specific forms of associated generic reactions are also returned. Default value is true.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Reactions|.

species-of-protein
Description
Get the associated species for the given protein.
Arguments
p
A list of instances of the class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
An instance of the class |Organisms|, or a string.

enzyme?
Description
Predicate that determines whether a specified protein is an enzyme or not.
Arguments
protein
An instance of the class |Proteins|.
type
Optional Can take on one of the following values to select more precisely what is meant by an “enzyme”:
:any
Any protein that catalyzes a reaction is considered an enzyme.
:chemical-change
If the reactants and products of the catalyzed reactin differ, and not just by their cellular location, then the protein is considered an enzyme.
:small-molecule
If the reactants of the catalyzed reaction differ and are small molecules, then the protein is considered an enzyme.
:transport
If the protein catalyzes a transport reaction.
:non-transport
If the protein only catalyzes non-transport reactions.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

leader-peptide?
Description
A predicate that determines whether the given protein is a leader peptide.
Arguments
protein
An instance of the class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

protein-p
Description
A predicate that determines whether the given frame is a protein.
Arguments
frame
An instance of the class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

complex-p
Description
A predicate that determines whether the given protein is a protein complex.
Arguments
frame
An instance of the class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

reactions-of-protein
Description
Returns all of the associated reactions that the given protein, or its components, catalyzes.
Arguments
p
An instance of the class |Proteins|.
check-protein-components?
Optional If true, check all components of this protein for catalyzed reactions. Defaults to true.
check-protein-containers?
Optional If true, check the containers and modified forms of the protein for catalyzed reactions.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Reactions|.

protein-in-compartment-p
Description
A predicate that checks if the given reaction is present in a list of cellular compartments.
Arguments
rxn
An instance of the class |Reactions|.
compartments
A list of cellular compartments, as defined in the Cellular Components Ontology. See frame 'CCO.
default-ok?
Keyword, Optional If true, then we return true if the reaction has no associated compartment information, or one of its associated locations is a super-class of one of the members of the compartments argument.
pwy
Keyword, Optional If supplied, the search for associated enzymes of the argument rxn is limited to the given child of |Pathways|.
loose?
Keyword, Optional If true, then the compartments 'CCO‑CYTOPLASM and 'CCO‑CYTOSOL are treated as being the same compartment.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

all-transporters-across
Description
Returns a list of transport proteins that transport across one of the given membranes.
Arguments
membranes
Keyword Either :all or a list of instances of the class. Defaults to :all 'CCO‑MEMBRANE.
method
Either :location or :reaction‑compartments. :location will check the 'locations slot, while :reaction‑compartments will examine the compartments of reaction substrates. Default value is :location.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Proteins|.

autocatalytic-reactions-of-enzyme
Description
Returns a list of reaction frames, where the protein participates as a substrate of the reaction, and the reaction has no associated Enzymatic Reaction frame. This implies that the protein substrate of the reaction might autocatalyzing the reaction.
Arguments
prot
An instance frame of class ’|Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Reactions|.

5.1.5  Operations on Genes

gene-p
Description
A predicate to determine if the given frame is a gene.
Arguments
frame
A frame.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

enzymes-of-gene
Description
Collects all of the enzymes encoded by the given gene, including modified forms and complexes in which it is a sub-component.
Arguments
gene
An instance of class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Proteins|.

all-products-of-gene
Description
Collects all proteins (not necessarily enzymes) that are encoded by the given gene.
Arguments
gene
An instance of class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Proteins|.

reactions-of-gene
Description
Returns all reactions catalyzed by enzymes encoded by the given gene.
Arguments
gene
An instance of class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Reactions|.

pathways-of-gene
Description
Returns the pathways of enzymes encoded by the given gene.
Arguments
gene
An instance of class |Genes|.
include-super-pwys?
Keyword, Optional If non-nil, then not only will the direct pathways in which gene encodes an enzyme be returned, but also any enclosing super-pathways. If gene is associated with a reaction that is directly associated with a super-pathway, then the function might return super-pathways even if this option is nil.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Pathways|.

chromosome-of-gene
Description
Returns the replicon on which the gene is located. If the gene is located on a contig that is, in turn, part of a chromosome, then the contig is returned.
Arguments
gene
An instance of class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
An instance of class |Genetic‑Elements|.

unmodified-gene-product
Description
Returns the first element of the list returned by the function unmodified‑gene‑products. This is useful if you are sure that there are no alternative splice forms of your gene.
Arguments
gene
An instance of class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
An instance of either class |Polypeptides| or 'RNA.

unmodified-gene-products
Description
Return all of the unmodified gene products (i.e. alternative splice forms) of the given gene.
Arguments
gene
An instance of class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of either class |Polypeptides| or 'RNA.

next-gene-on-replicon
Description
Return the next gene on the replicon.
Arguments
g
An instance of class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
Returns two values. The first value is the next gene, or nil if there is not a next gene (i.e., the gene is at the end of a linear replicon). The second value is :last if the gene is the last gene on a linear replicon.

previous-gene-on-replicon
Description
Return the previous gene on the replicon.
Arguments
g
An instance of class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
Returns two values. The first value is the previous gene, or nil if there is not a previous gene (i.e., the gene is at the beginning of a linear replicon). The second value is :first if the gene is the first gene on a linear replicon.

adjacent-genes?
Description
Given two genes, this predicate will return true if they are on the same replicon, and adjacent to one another.
Arguments
g1
An instance of class |Genes|.
g2
An instance of class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

connecting-genes
Description
Given two genes, if they are on the same replicon, return the replicon, and their numerical ordering among the genes of the replicon, with the smaller number first.
Arguments
g1
An instance of class |Genes|.
g2
An instance of class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
Three values: the common replicon, the smaller numerical index, and the larger numerical index.

neighboring-genes-p
Description
Given two genes, this predicate determines if the two genes are “neighbors”, or within a certain number of genes from one another along the replicon.
Arguments
g1
An instance of class |Genes|.
g2
An instance of class |Genes|.
n
Optional An integer representing the number of genes g1 and g2 can be from one another. Default value is 10.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

gene-clusters
Description
Groups together genes based on whether each gene is a gene neighbor with other genes.
Arguments
genes
A list of instances of class |Genes|.
max-gap
Optional An integer representing the number of genes any pair from genes can be from one another. Default value is 10.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of lists, where the first element of each sub-list is a gene from genes, and the rest of the list are all of the gene neighbors of the first gene.

rna-coding-gene?
Description
A predicate that determines if the given gene encodes an RNA.
Arguments
gene
An instance of the class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

protein-coding-gene?
Description
A predicate that determines if the given gene encodes a protein (as opposed to an RNA).
Arguments
gene
An instance of the class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

pseudo-gene-p
Description
A predicate that determines if the given gene is a pseudo-gene.
Arguments
gene
An instance of the class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

phantom-gene-p
Description
A predicate that determines if the given gene is a phantom gene.
Arguments
gene
An instance of the class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

dna-binding-site-p
Description
A predicate that determines if the given frame is an instance of the class |DNA‑Binding‑Sites|.
Arguments
gene
A frame.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

terminatorp
Description
A predicate that determines if the given object is an instance of the class |Terminators|.
Arguments
gene
A frame.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

operon-of-gene
Description
Given a gene, return a list of transcription units that form the operon containing the gene.
Arguments
gene
An instance of class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Transcription‑Units|.

genes-in-same-operon
Description
Given a gene, return all other genes in the same operon.
Arguments
gene
An instance of class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Genes|.

gene-transcription-units
Description
Given a gene, return all of the transcription units which contain the gene.
Arguments
gene
An instance of class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Transcription‑Units|.

cotranscribed-genes
Description
Return all co-transcribed genes (i.e., genes which are a part of one or more of the same transcription units) of the given gene.
Arguments
gene
An instance of class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Genes|.

terminators-affecting-gene
Description
Find terminators in the same transcription unit and upstream of the given gene.
Arguments
gene
An instance of class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Terminators|.

chromosome-of-object
Description
Given an object, the replicon where it is located is returned. If there is no associated replicon for the object, nil is returned. If the object is on more than one replicon, an error is thrown.
Arguments
object
An instance of class |All‑Genes|, |Transcription‑Units|, |Promoters|, |Terminators|, |Misc‑Features|, or |DNA‑Binding‑Sites|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
An instance of class |Genetic‑Elements|.

5.1.6  Operations on Regulation Frames

activation-p
Description
A predicate that determines if a given regulation frame is describing activation.
Arguments
reg-frame
An instance of class |Regulation|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

inhibition-p
Description
A predicate that determines if a given regulation frame is describing inhibition.
Arguments
reg-frame
An instance of class |Regulation|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

direct-regulators
Description
Return all regulators that are connected to a regulated object by a single regulation object.
Arguments
x
A frame.
filter-fn
Optional A predicate used to filter the regulation objects used to find the regulators.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of frames that regulate x.

direct-activators
Description
Return all activators that are connected to an activated object by a single regulation object.
Arguments
x
A frame.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of frames that activate x.

direct-inhibitors
Description
Return all inhibitors that are connected to an inhibited object by a single regulation object.
Arguments
x
A frame.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of frames that inhibit x.

transcription-factor?
Description
A predicate that determines if the given protein is a transcription factor, or a component of a transcription factor.
Arguments
protein
An instance frame of class |Proteins|.
include-inactive?
Keyword, Optional If true, then the function checks to see if any of its components or containers is a transcription factor as well.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

regulator-of-type?
Description
A predicate that determines if the given protein is a regulator of the specified class.
Arguments
protein
An instance frame of class |Proteins|.
class
A subclass of |Regulation|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

regulon-of-protein
Description
Returns all transcription units regulated by any form of the given protein.
Arguments
protein
An instance frame of class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Transcription‑Units|.

regulation-frame-transcription-units
Description
Given a regulation object, return the transcription units when one of the regulated entities is a promoter or terminator of the transcription unit.
Arguments
reg-frame
An instance of the class |Regulation‑of‑Transcription|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Transcription‑Units|.

transcription-unit-regulation-frames
Description
Returns a list of regulation frames that regulate the transcription unit.
Arguments
tu
An instance of the class |Transcription‑Units|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Regulation|.

transcription-unit-activation-frames
Description
Returns a list of regulation frames that activate the transcription unit.
Arguments
tu
An instance of the class |Transcription‑Units|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Regulation|.

transcription-unit-inhibition-frames
Description
Returns a list of regulation frames that inhibit the transcription unit.
Arguments
tu
An instance of the class |Transcription‑Units|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Regulation|.

transcription-units-of-protein
Description
Return all of the transcription units for which the given protein, or its modified form, acts as a regulator.
Arguments
protein
An instance of the class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Transcription‑Units|.

genes-regulated-by-protein
Description
Return all of the genes for which the given protein, or its modified form, acts as a regulator.
Arguments
protein
An instance of the class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Genes|.

DNA-binding-sites-of-protein
Description
Given a transcription factor, return all of its DNA binding sites.
Arguments
tf
An instance of the class |Proteins|.
all-forms?
Keyword, Optional When true, then return the DNA binding sites of modified forms and subunits of tf as well.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |DNA‑Binding‑Sites|.

regulator-proteins-of-transcription-unit
Description
Returns all transcription factors that regulate the given transcription unit.
Arguments
tu
An instance of the class |Transcription‑Units|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Proteins|.

transcription-factor-ligands
Description
For a single transcription factor or list of transcription factors, return all transcription factor ligands.
Arguments
tfs
An instance or a list of instances of the class |Proteins|. If tfs is not the active form, then the active form is determined automatically.
mode
One of the following values: :activator, :inhibitor, or :both.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Chemicals| or strings.

transcription-factor-active-forms
Description
For a given transcription factor, find all active forms (i.e, form of the protein that regulates) of the transcription factor.
Arguments
tfs
An instance of the class |Proteins|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of the class |Proteins|.

genes-regulating-gene
Description
Return all genes regulating the given gene by means of a transcription factor.
Arguments
gene
An instance of the class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Genes|.

genes-regulated-by-gene
Description
Return all genes regulated by the given gene by means of a transcription factor.
Arguments
gene
An instance of the class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Genes|.

regulators-of-gene-transcription
Description
Returns a list of proteins that are regulators of the given gene.
Arguments
gene
An instance of the class |Genes|.
by-function?
Optional If non-nil, then return two values: a list of activator proteins and a list of inhibitor proteins.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Proteins|. If by‑function? is non-nil, then two values are returned. The first value is a list of activator proteins, and the second value is a list of inhibitor proteins.

transcription-unit-activators
Description
Returns all activator proteins of the given transcription unit.
Arguments
tu
An instance of the class |Transcription‑Units|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Proteins|.

transcription-unit-inhibitors
Description
Returns all inhibitor proteins of the given transcription unit.
Arguments
tu
An instance of the class |Transcription‑Units|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Proteins|.

regulators-of-operon-transcription
Description
Returns a list of transcription factors of an operon.
Arguments
operon-list
A list of instances of the class |Transcription‑Units|.
by-function?
Optional If non-nil, then return two values: a list of activator proteins and a list of inhibitor proteins.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Proteins|. If the modified form of the protein is the transcription factor, then that is the protein returned.

transcription-unit-promoter
Description
Returns the promoter of the given transcription unit.
Arguments
tu
An instance of the class |Transcription‑Units|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
An instance of class |Promoters|.

transcription-unit-genes
Description
Returns the genes of the given transcription unit.
Arguments
tu
An instance of the class |Transcription‑Units|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Genes|.

transcription-unit-first-gene
Description
Returns the first gene of the given transcription unit.
Arguments
tu
An instance of the class |Transcription‑Units|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
An instance of class |Genes|.

transcription-unit-binding-sites
Description
Returns the binding sites of the given transcription unit.
Arguments
tu
An instance of the class |Transcription‑Units|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |DNA‑Binding‑Sites|.

transcription-unit-transcription-factors
Description
Returns the binding sites of the given transcription unit.
Arguments
tu
An instance of the class |Transcription‑Units|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |DNA‑Binding‑Sites|.

transcription-unit-mrna-binding-sites
Description
Returns the mRNA binding sites of the given transcription unit.
Arguments
tu
An instance of the class |Transcription‑Units|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |mRNA‑Binding‑Sites|.

chromosome-of-operon
Description
Returns the replicon of the given transcription unit.
Arguments
tu
An instance of the class |Transcription‑Units|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
An instance of class |Genetic‑Elements|.

binding-sites-affecting-gene
Description
Returns all binding sites which are present in the same transcription units as the given gene.
Arguments
gene
An instance of the class |Genes|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |DNA‑Binding‑Sites|.

binding-site->regulators
Description
Returns all of the transcription factors of the given binding site.
Arguments
bsite
An instance of class |DNA‑Binding‑Sites|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Proteins|.

transcription-units-of-promoter
Description
Returns all transcription units of a given promoter.
Arguments
promoter
An instance of class |Promoters|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Transcription‑Units|.

promoter-binding-sites
Description
Returns all of the binding sites associated with the given promoter, across multiple transcription units.
Arguments
promoter
An instance of class |Promoters|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |DNA‑Binding‑Sites|.

transcription-unit-terminators
Description
Returns the terminators of the given transcription unit.
Arguments
operon
An instance of the class |Transcription‑Units|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Terminators|.

containing-tus
Description
Given a site (whether a DNA binding site, a promoter, a gene, or a terminator) along a transcription unit, return the correspodning transcription units.
Arguments
site
An instance of class |Transcription‑Units|, |mRNA‑Binding‑Sites|, |DNA‑Binding‑Sites|, |Promoters|, |Genes|, or |Terminators|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Transcription‑Units|.

containing-chromosome
Description
Given a site (whether a DNA binding site, a promoter, a gene, or a terminator) along a transcription unit, return the correspodning regulon.
Arguments
site
An instance of class |Transcription‑Units|, |mRNA‑Binding‑Sites|, |DNA‑Binding‑Sites|, |Promoters|, |Genes|, or |Terminators|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
An instance of class |Genetic‑Elements|.

binding-site-promoters
Description
Returns the promoters of the given DNA binding site.
Arguments
tu
An instance of the class |DNA‑Binding‑Sites|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Promoters|.

transcription-unit-all-components
Description
Returns all components (binding sites, promoters, genes, terminators) of the given transcription unit.
Arguments
tu
An instance of the class |Transcription‑Units|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Transcription‑Units|, |mRNA‑Binding‑Sites|, |DNA‑Binding‑Sites|, |Promoters|, |Genes|, or |Terminators|.

binding-site-transcription-units
Description
Returns all transcription units of a given binding site.
Arguments
promoter
An instance of class |DNA‑Binding‑Sites| or |mRNA‑Binding‑Sites|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Transcription‑Units|.

5.1.7  Operations on Compounds

reactions-of-compound
Description
Return all reactions in which the given compound participates as a substrate.
Arguments
cpd
A child of class |Compounds|.
non-specific-too?
Keyword, Optional If non-nil, returns all generic reactions where cpd, or a parent of cpd, appears as a substrate.
transport-only?
Keyword, Optional If non-nil, return only transport reactions.
compartment
Keyword, Optional If non-nil, return only reactions within the specified compartment.
enzymatic?
Keyword, Optional If non-nil, return only enzymatic reactions.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of children of class |Reactions|.

substrate-of-generic-rxn?
Description
A predicate that determines if a parent of the given compound is a substrate of the given generic reaction.
Arguments
cpd
An instance of class |Compounds|.
rxn
An instance of class |Reactions|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A boolean value.

pathways-of-compound
Description
Returns all pathways in which the given compound appears as a substrate.
Arguments
cpd
An instance of class |Compounds|.
non-specific-too?
Keyword, Optional If non-nil, returns all generic reactions where cpd, or a parent of cpd, appears as a substrate.
modulators?
Keyword, Optional If non-nil, returns pathways where cpd appears as a regulator as well.
phys-relevant?
Keyword, Optional If true, then only return inhibitors that are associated with |Regulation| instances that have the 'physiologically‑relevant? slot set to non-nil.
include-rxns?
Keyword, Optional If non-nil, then return a list of reaction-pathway pairs.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Pathways|. If include‑rxns? is non-nil, then a list of lists, where each sub-list consists of an instance of class |Reactions| and an instance of class |Pathways|.

activated-or-inhibited-by-compound
Description
Returns all pathways in which the given compound appears as a substrate.
Arguments
cpds
An instance or list of instances of class |Compounds|.
mode
Keyword, Optional Represents the type of regulation. Can take on the values of “+”, “-”, or 'nil.
mechanisms
Keyword, Optional Keywords from the 'mechanism slot of the corresponding sub-class of the class |Regulation|. If non-nil, only regulation objects with mechanisms in this list will be explored for regulated objects.
phys-relevant?
Keyword, Optional If true, then only return inhibitors that are associated with |Regulation| instances that have the 'physiologically‑relevant? slot set to non-nil.
slots
Keyword A list of enzymatic reaction slots to

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Enzymatic‑Reactions|.

tfs-bound-to-compound
Description
Returns a list of protein complexes that, when bound to the given compound, act as a transcription factor.
Arguments
cpd
An instance of class |Compounds|.
include-inactive?
Keyword, Optional If non-nil, then the inactive form of the protein is also checked. See the function #'transcription‑factor? for more information.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A list of instances of class |Proteins|.

5.1.8  Object Name Manipulation Operations

get-name-string
Description
Given an object, compute the string name. The method used to compute the name varies per the object class.
Arguments
item
A frame.
rxn-eqn-as-name?
Keyword, Optional If non-nil, then we use the reaction equation in string form as the name of the reaction. Defaults to true.
rxn-common-name-as-name?
Keyword, Optional If non-nil, then we use the reaction’s common name as the name of the reaction.
direction
Keyword, Optional An argument of :l2r or :r2l can be given to specify the desired reaction orientiation when printed in reaction equation form. If this is not provided, then the reaction direction will be determined using pathway evidence.
name-slot
Keyword, Optional The specified slotunit frame name, as a symbol, will be used for extracting the name of the frame.
strip-html?
Keyword, Optional Remove any HTML mark-up from the string form of the object name.
include-species-strain-name?
Keyword, Optional Provide proper italicization for the organism strain name.
italicize-species?
Keyword, Optional Provide proper italicization for the organism species name.
short-name?
Keyword, Optional If the 'ABBREV‑NAME slot is populated for the frame, then its value will be used.
species-initials
Keyword, Optional Print the name of the organism as initials.
primary-class
Keyword, Optional Specify explicitly the primary class of the given frame. This can be used to override the internal reasoning of this function, and you can give a suggestion to the function to treat the frame as another class.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A string representing the name of the frame.

full-enzyme-name
Description
Compute the full name of an enzyme as the concatenation of the common name of the protein followed by the common names of its enzymatic reactions. Note that two enzrxns for the same enzyme could have the same common name, so we avoid including the same name twice.
Arguments
enzyme
A instance of the class |Proteins|.
use-frame-name?
Optional If non-nil, then the frame ID of the enzyme instance is used in computing the enzyme name. Defaults to true.
name
Optional A string that bypasses the function, and will be returned as the value of the function.
activity-names
Optional A provided list of strings, that represent the names of the known catalytic activities of enzyme.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A string.

enzyme-activity-name
Description
Computes the name of an enzyme in the context of a particular reaction. If the reaction is not provided, then we return the full enzyme name.
Arguments
enzyme
An instance of the class |Proteins|.
reaction
Optional An instance of the class |Reactions|.

Side-Effects
None.
Return Value(s)
A string.

subunit-name
Description

Arguments
Side-Effects
[
Return Value(s)
c

apitalized-gene-name]

rxn-name-string
transcription-unit-name

org-name
format-organism-name
frame-organism-name
orgkb-organism-name
orgkb-name-equalp
orgkb-species-name-w-strain
abbreviate-species-name
species-initials

6  Code Examples

In this section, we provide a few examples of how to write code in Commonl Lisp that makes use of the Lisp API. This file contains the following sections:

  1. Example Table-Generating Fuctions – Describes utilities that are useful for displaying query results.

  2. Example Queries – Lists a number of example queries

6.1  Example Table-Generating Functions

The functions in this first section are useful for displaying query results. Typically (but not necessarily) a query returns a list of object identifiers. This functions print a more meaningful description of each object, one per line.

;; Given a list of frame names, prints a table of frame names and human-readable
;; names.  The optional Format argument selects among different ways of formatting
;; the two columns: :Columns prints fixed-width columns, :Tab separates the
;; columns with a single tab, and :Space separates the columns with a single space.

(defun object-table (object-list &optional (format :columns))
  (loop for x in object-list
      for fname = (get-frame-name x)
      do
	(ecase format
	  (:columns (format t "~35A ~A~%" fname (get-name-string x)))
	  (:tab     (format t "~A	~A~%" fname (get-name-string x)))
	  (:space   (format t "~A ~A~%" fname (get-name-string x)))
	  ) )
  )

;; Print a list of genes in table form containing, on each line:
;;   ecocyc-gene-id  ecocyc-gene-name  b-number  product-name
;;
;; Example usage:  (gene-table (find-gene-by-substring "trp"))

(defun gene-table (gene-list)
  (loop for g in gene-list
      for fname = (get-frame-name g)
      for prod = (get-slot-value g 'product)
      for bn = (blattner-gene-id g)
      do
	(format t "~20A ~20A ~20A ~A~%"
		fname
		(get-slot-value g 'common-name)
		(or bn "")
		(if prod (get-name-string prod) "")
		)
	) )

;; This macro sends all output generated by Body that would normally go
;; to the terminal to the file named by Filename.
;;
;;   Example usage:
;;      (tofile "~/genes.dat" (gene-table (find-gene-by-substring "trp")))

(defmacro tofile (filename &body body)
  `(with-open-file (file ,filename
		    :direction :output
		    :if-exists :supersede)
     (let ((*standard-output* file))
       ,@body) )
  )

6.2  Example Queries

To run these sample queries, invoke the Pathway Tools from Unix as:

    pathway-tools -lisp

The next prompt obtained will be the Lisp listener, to which you can type Lisp expression such as:

    (load "examples.lisp")

which will load all of the functions in this file. You can then run a given query by running a function by typing, for example,

    (atp-inhibits)

Each example query returns a list of object identifiers. The results are typically printed using a function such as object-table, or else are viewed using the Answer List within the Pathway/Genome Navigator. For example:

    (replace-answer-list (oxidoreductases))
    (eco)

    [click on Next-Answer]

;;    Find all oxidoreductases
;;    The query iterates through all instances of the EcoCyc class for
;;  the Enzyme Commission class 1, which is oxidoreductases, and uses a
;;  built-in function that returns all enzymes that catalyze each of those
;;  reactions, and appends together the results.

(defun oxidoreductases ()
  (loop for x in (get-class-all-instances 'EC-1)
      append (enzymes-of-reaction x) )
  )

;;   Find all enzymes for which pyruvate is a substrate
;;   The query iterates through all instances of the class Reactions;
;;  for those instances whose substrates slot contains pyruvate,
;;  the query appends together the enzymes that catalyzes those reactions.

(defun pyrsubs ()
    (loop for x in (get-class-all-instances '|Reactions|)
	when (member-slot-value-p x 'substrates 'pyruvate)
	append (enzymes-of-reaction x) )
  )

;;   Find all enzymes for which ATP is an inhibitor

(defun atp-inhibits ()
    (loop for x in (get-class-all-instances '|Regulation-of-Enzyme-Activity|)
	when (and (member-slot-value-p x 'regulator 'atp)
		  (member-slot-value-p x 'mode "-" :test #'fequal) )
	collect (get-slot-value (get-slot-value x 'regulated-entity) 'enzyme) )
  )

;;   Find all enzymes for which pyridoxal phosphate is a prosthetic group.

(defun pp-prosthetic ()
    (loop for x in (get-class-all-instances '|Enzymatic-Reactions|)
	when (member-slot-value-p x 'prosthetic-groups 'Pyridoxal_Phosphate)
	collect (get-slot-value x 'enzyme) )
  )

;;   Find all enzymes in the TCA cycle

(defun tca-enzymes ()
    (loop for x in (get-slot-values 'TCA 'reaction-list)
	append (enzymes-of-reaction x) )
  )

;;   Find all transporters for L-lysine

(defun lysine-transporters ()
    (loop for x in (all-rxns :transport)
	when (member-slot-value-p x 'substrates 'Lys)
	append (enzymes-of-reaction x) )
  )

;;   Find all enzymes that accept glutamine and ammonia as
;;  alternative substrates

(defvar *enzymes*)

(defun gltamm-subs ()
  (setq *enzymes* nil)
  (loop for x in (get-class-all-instances '|Enzymatic-Reactions|)
      do (loop for item in (get-slot-values x 'alternative-substrates)
	     when (or (and (fequal 'AMMONIA (first item))
			   (find 'GLN (rest item)) )
		      (and (fequal 'GLN (first item))
			   (find 'AMMONIA (rest item)) ) 
		      )
	     do (push (get-slot-value x 'enzyme) *enzymes*)
		) )
  )

;;  Find all genes that contain a given name as their common name or
;; as a synonym:

(defun find-gene-by-name (name)
  (loop for g in (get-class-all-instances '|Genes|)
      when (member-slot-value-p g 'names name)
      collect g)
  )

;;  Find all that genes that contain a given substring within their
;;  common name or synonym list.  The use of the string-equal test
;;  ensures case-insensitve matching.  The result variable is used
;;  because if we use a collect within the second loop, its result
;;  will not be collected by the first loop.

(defun find-gene-by-substring (substring)
  (let (result)
    (loop for g in (get-class-all-instances '|Genes|)
	do
	  (loop for name in (get-slot-values g 'names)
	      when (search substring name :test #'string-equal)
	      do (pushnew g result)
		 ) )
    result
    ) )

;; Find genes located between 20 and 30 centisomes on the map
(loop for gene in (get-class-all-instances '|Genes|)
      for pos = (get-slot-value gene 'centisome-position) 
      when (and pos 
                (> pos 20) 
                (< pos 30)) 
      collect gene) 

;; The preceding query returns a list of genes. To run the Pathway/
;; Genome Navigator with those genes on the Answer list,
;; evaluate the following. The "*" means "the result returned by
;; the last expression evaluated".
(eco :answer-list *) 

;; Find reactions involving pyruvate as a substrate
(loop for rxn in (get-class-all-instances '|Reactions|) 
      when (member 'pyruvate (get-slot-values rxn 'substrates)) 
      collect rxn) 

;; Find all genes whose products catalyze a reaction involving
;; pyruvate as a substrate
(loop for rxn in (get-class-all-instances '|Reactions|)
      for genes = (genes-of-reaction rxn) 
      when (member-slot-value-p rxn 'substrates 'pyruvate)
      append genes)

;; Find all enzymes that use pyridoxal phosphate as a cofactor
;; or prosthetic group
(loop for protein in (get-class-all-instances '|Proteins|) 
      for enzrxn = (get-slot-value protein 'enzymatic-reaction) 
      when (and enzrxn 
                (or (member-slot-value-p enzrxn 
                           'cofactors 'pyridoxal_phosphate) 
                    (member-slot-value-p enzrxn 
                           'prosthetic-groups 'pyridoxal_phosphate)
                    ))  
      collect protein)

Last modified: Wed, Oct 21, 2009, 2:58 pm UTC−8 +1